RFID technical standards
As early as the 1990s, ISO/IEC had begun to formulate the container standard ISO 10374, and later formulated the official container electronic standard ISO 18185, animal management standards ISO 11784/5, ISO 14223 and so on. As the application of RFID technology becomes more and more extensive, ISO/IEC recognizes that it is necessary to formulate general technical standards for the common requirements and attributes involved in different application fields, rather than formulating each application technical standard completely independently.
When formulating the ISO 17363-17367 series of logistics and supply chain standards, the ISO/IEC 18000 series of standards were directly cited. The general technical standard provides a basic framework, and the application standard is a supplement and specific regulation to it, so as to ensure the interconnection and interoperability of RFID technology in different application fields, and take into account the characteristics of the application field, which can be well satisfied. Specific requirements of the application area. The difference between application technology standards and user application systems is that application technology standards target the common attributes of a large class of application systems, while user application systems target a specific application. If you use the object-oriented analysis thinking as a metaphor, the general technical standard is regarded as a basic class, and the applied technical standard is a derived class.
The ISO TC 104 Technical Committee is responsible for the formulation of container standards and is the highest authority for container manufacturing and operation. Standards related to RFID are formulated by the Fourth Subcommittee (SC4). Including the following standards:
1) ISO 6346 Container-Code, ID and Identification Symbol, developed in 1995
This standard provides a container identification system. The container identification system has a wide range of uses, such as documents, control and communication (including automatic data processing), just like the display of the container itself. The mandatory identification in the container identification is coupled with optional features applied in the automatic equipment identification (AEI) and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). The standard stipulates a coding system for container size, type and other data plus corresponding marking methods, physical display of operation marks and container marks.
2) ISO 10374 standard for automatic container identification, formulated in 1991 and revised in 1995
The standard is based on the automatic container identification system of microwave transponders, which treats the container as a fixed asset. The transponder is an active device, the working frequency is 850MHz～950Mhz and 2.4GHz～2.5GHz. As long as the transponder is in this field, it will be activated and use the deformed FSK subcarrier to respond through backscatter modulation. The signal is modulated between the two subcarrier frequencies of 40kHz and 20kHz. Because it was formulated in 1991, the term RFID has not yet been used. In fact, active transponders are today's active RFID electronic tags. This standard and ISO 6346 are jointly applied to the identification of containers. ISO 6346 specifies optical identification, and ISO 10374 uses microwave methods to characterize optical identification information.
3) ISO 18185, draft of the official container electronic standard (land, sea, air)
This standard is used by the customs to monitor the loading and unloading of containers . It contains 7 parts: air interface communication protocol, application requirements, environmental characteristics, data protection, sensors, information exchange message sets, and physical layer characteristics requirements.
The air interface protocols involved in the above two standards do not quote the ISO/IEC 18000 series air interface protocols, mainly because they were formulated earlier than the ISO/IEC 18000 series air interface protocols.
In order to enable RFID to play an important role in the entire logistics supply chain, ISO TC 122 Packaging Technical Committee and ISO TC 104 Freight Container Technical Committee established a joint working group JWG, responsible for formulating a series of logistics supply chain standards. The working group formulated six application standards in accordance with application requirements, freight containers, loading units, transportation units, product packaging, and single-product five-level logistics units.
1) ISO 17358 application requirements
This is the application requirement standard for RFID in the supply chain. It is hosted by the TC 122 Technical Committee and is in the process of being formulated. The standard defines the parameters of each level of the supply chain logistics unit, and defines the environmental identification and data flow.
2) ISO 17363～17367 series standards
Supply chain RFID logistics unit series standards respectively regulate the RFID application of freight containers, returnable transport units, transport units, product packaging, and product labels. The content of this series of standards is basically similar, for example, the air interface protocol adopts the ISO/IEC 18000 series of standards. There are differences in specific regulations. Supplementary regulations are made for different objects of use, such as environmental conditions, label size, label placement location and other characteristics. The carrier frequency of electronic tags is also different according to the differences in objects. Electronic tags used in freight containers, recyclable transport units, and transport units must be reusable, and product packaging must be based on actual conditions, while product labels are usually disposable. In addition, the integrity of the data, visual identification and so on should be considered. The recyclable unit has higher requirements for data capacity, safety, and communication distance. This series of standards is under development.
What needs attention here is the relationship between the three standards ISO 10374, ISO 18185 and ISO 17363. They are all for containers, but ISO 10374 is for the management of containers themselves, ISO 18185 is for customs to monitor containers, and ISO 17363 is for supplies. For chain management purposes, readable and writable RFID identification tags and freight tags are used on freight containers.
ISO TC 23/SC 19 is responsible for the formulation of animal management RFID standards, including ISO 11784/11785 and ISO 14223.
ISO 11784 code structure
It stipulates the 64-bit coding structure of animal radio frequency identification code, and the animal radio frequency identification code requires that the reader and the electronic tag can identify each other. Usually the bit stream containing the data plus the coded data needed to ensure that the data is correct. The code structure is 64 bits, of which 27 to 64 bits can be defined by each country.
According to estimates by retail analysts at Sanford C. Bernstein, Wal-Mart can save US$8.35 billion per year by adopting RFID, most of which are labor costs saved by not having to manually check incoming barcodes. Although other analysts believe that the figure of $8 billion is too optimistic, there is no doubt that RFID can help solve the two biggest problems in the retail industry: out of stock and wastage (products lost due to theft and disrupted supply chain) , And for theft alone, Wal-Mart’s annual losses are almost 2 billion U.S. dollars. If a legitimate company can achieve this number in turnover, it can be ranked 694th among the 1,000 largest companies in the United States. Research institutions estimate that this RFID technology can help reduce theft and inventory levels by 25%.